A class action can be filed for example in disputes concerning a defect in consumer goods or a divergent interpretation of terms of contract. Disputes between a consumer and a business relating to sales and marketing of investment products and insurances, such as pension insurances, savings insurances and fund units, also fall within the scope of application of the Act on Class Actions. As of 1 January 2019, the Helsinki District Court is the court hearing all class actions.
A case may be heard as a class action, if several persons have claims against the same defendant, based on the same or similar circumstances. A class action is brought by the Consumer Ombudsman, who also represents the class. Class members are not liable for legal costs; instead, the costs are paid either by the plaintiff, in other words the Consumer Ombudsman, or by the defendant.